Science Highlights

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Recently, together with colleagues, two members from CLIVAR Ocean Model Development Panel (OMDP) conducted a comprehensive analysis on the Arctic sea surface salinity (SSS), liquid freshwater content (LFWC) and freshwater budget by comparing the CMIP6 to the CMIP5 results, showing that the salinity of the Barents Sea Opening is projected to keep declining in the future.

A recent paper on this subject by researchers at the University Complutense of Madrid examines the role of tropical convection, specially the location of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), in the occurrence of the two main tropical Atlantic-to-tropical Pacific basin interactions: the equatorial Atlantic to equatorial Pacific teleconnection, and the North Tropical Atlantic to equatorial Pacific teleconnection.

Aiming to account for the Polar Amplification, this study used global climate simulations from CMIP5 and CMIP6 to investigate the effects of three different global warming thresholds (1.5 °C, 2 °C and 3 °C) and the projected ice free occurrence of both poles.

A recent study led by Dr Luciano Pezzi, member of the CLIVAR/CliC/SCAR Southern Ocean Region Panel, was published in Climate Dynamics. This work brings a new approach to the study and understanding of the oceanic surface cooling that the oceanic South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) causes, concerning air-sea interaction processes. 

In the recent review paper, "Freshwater in the Arctic Ocean 2010–2019", the CLIVAR/CliC Northern Ocean Region Panel assess how the Arctic freshwater budget has changed since the 2000s using ocean reanalyses, in-situ observations,and satellite measurements

A recent study published in Advances in Atmospheric Sciences (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-022-1461-3), led by Dr. Lijing Cheng, member of CLIVAR GSOP, provides the first analysis of recent OHC changes through 2021 from two international groups, i.e. IAP/CAS in China and NCEI/NOAA in the US.

A recent study in Bulletin of American Meteorological Society (BAMS) led by CLIVAR IORP member - Dr. Dongxiao Wang’s team (Zeng et al., 2021) briefly overviews the decadal progress of the eastern Tropical Indian Ocean Observing Network (TIOON), a persistent observation effort implemented by China.

The assessment shows that including the ocean surface wave processes in a climate model can effectively improve the simulation and prediction skills of SST in the Pacific and ENSO events.

A recent synthesis coordinated and largely contributed by the CLIVAR Pacific Region Panel, published in Science (Power et al., 2021, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay9165), reviews the current understanding of TPDV and provide recommendations to improve our understanding of TPDV and our ability to predict it.

A recent synthesis in Nature Review Earth and Environment led by the CLIVAR community and in particular the CLIVAR Pacific Region Panel (Cai et al., 2021, https://doi.org/10.1038/s43017-021-00199-z) assesses the potential future changes of multiple aspects of ENSO and the underlying processes behind such changes. 

According to the original projection of CMIP5 models, the extreme El Niño would increase twice in the future. By removing the net impacts from the models’ 13 systematic biases, Prof. Luo and his research team (Tang et al., 2021) found that the extreme El Niño frequency would remain almost unchanged in the future.

Arctic Atlantification was witnessed in the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean recently. It is characterized by significant ocean warming and weakening in upper ocean stratification along with winter sea ice decline. However, the change in atmosphere–ocean–sea ice interaction during the Arctic Atlantification is still an open question. A most recently paper published in Nature Communication gives a possible answer.

In the eastern tropical Indian Ocean, intraseasonal variability (ISV) affects the regional oceanography and marine ecosystems. The ISV has been found to be modulated by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), but the impact of ENSO is ambiguous. 

The ocean temperatures continued a trend of breaking records in 2020. A new study, authored by 20 scientists from 14 institutes around the world, reported the highest ocean temperatures since 1955 from surface level to a depth of 2,000 m.

In the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, easterly trade winds prevail and upwelling occurs in the eastern equatorial basin. In contrast, the Indian Ocean is subject to intense seasonally reversing monsoon wind forcing, and the annual mean prevailing winds in the equatorial basin. This provides unique features of interannual variability of the upwelling in the tropical Indian Ocean.

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