Science Highlights

Changing El Niño–Southern Oscillation in a warming climate

A recent synthesis in Nature Review Earth and Environment led by the CLIVAR community and in particular the CLIVAR Pacific Region Panel (Cai et al., 2021, assesses the potential future changes of multiple aspects of ENSO and the underlying processes behind such changes. 

Model bias correction for reliable projection of extreme El Niño frequency change

According to the original projection of CMIP5 models, the extreme El Niño would increase twice in the future. By removing the net impacts from the models’ 13 systematic biases, Prof. Luo and his research team (Tang et al., 2021) found that the extreme El Niño frequency would remain almost unchanged in the future.

The poleward enhanced Arctic Ocean cooling machine in a warming climate

Arctic Atlantification was witnessed in the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean recently. It is characterized by significant ocean warming and weakening in upper ocean stratification along with winter sea ice decline. However, the change in atmosphere–ocean–sea ice interaction during the Arctic Atlantification is still an open question. A most recently paper published in Nature Communication gives a possible answer.

Significant consequences of the extreme El Niño events in the intraseasonal variability in the tropical Indian Ocean

In the eastern tropical Indian Ocean, intraseasonal variability (ISV) affects the regional oceanography and marine ecosystems. The ISV has been found to be modulated by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), but the impact of ENSO is ambiguous. 

Effects of Climate Modes on Interannual Variability of Upwelling in the Tropical Indian Ocean

In the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, easterly trade winds prevail and upwelling occurs in the eastern equatorial basin. In contrast, the Indian Ocean is subject to intense seasonally reversing monsoon wind forcing, and the annual mean prevailing winds in the equatorial basin. This provides unique features of interannual variability of the upwelling in the tropical Indian Ocean.

Robust late twenty-first century shift in the regional monsoons in RegCM-CORDEX simulations

The paper uses an unprecedented ensemble of regional climate model (RCM) projections over seven regional CORDEX domains to provide, for the first time, an RCM based global view of monsoon changes at various levels of increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing.