A recent synthesis coordinated and largely contributed by the CLIVAR Pacific Region Panel, published in Science (Power et al., 2021, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aay9165), reviews the current understanding of TPDV and provide recommendations to improve our understanding of TPDV and our ability to predict it.
A recent synthesis in Nature Review Earth and Environment led by the CLIVAR community and in particular the CLIVAR Pacific Region Panel (Cai et al., 2021, https://doi.org/10.1038/s43017-021-00199-z) assesses the potential future changes of multiple aspects of ENSO and the underlying processes behind such changes.
According to the original projection of CMIP5 models, the extreme El Niño would increase twice in the future. By removing the net impacts from the models’ 13 systematic biases, Prof. Luo and his research team (Tang et al., 2021) found that the extreme El Niño frequency would remain almost unchanged in the future.
Arctic Atlantification was witnessed in the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean recently. It is characterized by significant ocean warming and weakening in upper ocean stratification along with winter sea ice decline. However, the change in atmosphere–ocean–sea ice interaction during the Arctic Atlantification is still an open question. A most recently paper published in Nature Communication gives a possible answer.
In the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, easterly trade winds prevail and upwelling occurs in the eastern equatorial basin. In contrast, the Indian Ocean is subject to intense seasonally reversing monsoon wind forcing, and the annual mean prevailing winds in the equatorial basin. This provides unique features of interannual variability of the upwelling in the tropical Indian Ocean.
ENSO in the Pacific Ocean has major worldwide social and economic consequences through its global scale effects on atmospheric and oceanic circulation, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and other natural systems. Ongoing climate change is projected to significantly alter ENSO’s dynamics and impacts.